Waste Water Management - Part - 01

 


In India, wastewater or the drainage water is kept in open space and no further maintenance of the wastewater is done to the viral diseases are spreading very fast in the surroundings which are affecting the country's development. 

People need to have aware of the re-usage of the wastewater and its maintenance. A special mechanism is it be prepared for controlling the damage of the surroundings, environment, Aquatic life in the rivers and seas, and land pollution.
As the population is increasing the use of water increased and no proper maintenance of the water is not done in the right manner. Vast countries like India should have a piece of better knowledge and implementation techniques to control and maintenance of wastewater. 

Wastewater Management

Introduction to waste-water

Introduction
The raw water or treated water is analyzed by testing their physical and chemical and biological characteristics. Treatment of water is done stage by stage.

Physical Characteristics
Turbidity
Taste & Odor
Temperature
Colour

Chemical Characteristics
pH
Alkalinity
Hardness
Chlorides
Sulphates
Iron
Solids
Nitrates

Biological Characteristics 
Biological treatment of water is very important for drinking purposes and for any other technical and commercial usage. water is polluted by sewage contains one or more species of disease-producing pathogenic bacteria. Pathogenic organisms cause water-borne diseases, and many non-pathogenic bacteria. 
The coliform group is also living in the intestinal tract of human beings. It is not a harmful group but it is having more resistance to adverse conditions than any other group. So, if it is ensured to minimize the number of coliforms, the harmful species will be less. So, these coliforms group serves as an indicator of contamination of water with sewage and the presence of pathogens.

Waterborne Diseases
Waterborne pathogens are largely transmitted through a faecal-oral route, are important causative agents of disease outbreaks in developing as well as developed countries. They contribute to background rates of disease not detected as outbreaks and therefore not reported to public health authorities 

Transmission
transmission refers to the acquisition of disease by exposure to pathogens through the ingestion of water contaminated with an inorganic substance. water can become contaminated at the source, during transport to the home, in storage containers, or through improper handling.
Unprotected surface water (such as rivers, lakes, or springs) or groundwater such as shallow wells can become contaminated by human or animal faeces or agricultural effluent. Piped water sources can also become contaminated from a variety of factors. if the source water is contaminated and is not chlorinated or otherwise treated, or if the amount of disinfectant applied is inadequate, the water delivered to the tap will likely be contaminated. Insufficient maintenance of pipes may contain sediment that consumes chlorine residuals. rendering disinfection practices ineffective. Cracked pipes or crossed connections with sewer pipes or crossed connections with sewer pipes can permit entry of contaminants into a water system, creating an efficient vehicle got the transmission of pathogens.
Prevention

Prevention of waterborne diseases
Some important necessary steps have to be taken against these diseases. To do this, individuals and their family members should follow these instructions

DO's 
Nails should be cut short once every three days
Only filtered water for the RO water should be consumed 
Wash your hands properly with soap before consuming any kind of food 
If a person does not have a water purification system he/she should drink water after boiling and cooling it.

Dont's
Consumption of water, milkshakes, and fruit juices from roadside vendors should be avoided
Avoid eating cut fruits, Chat, and food material from roadside vendors.
Oily and Spicy food should be avoided
Half cooked, Pre-cooked, Refrigerated food should not be consumed.
Avoid sharing utensils while consuming food.

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